ALD/ High K Metal Precursors-NEW

$8,599.00

• Provides market and technical trend information on organic and inorganic precursors, addressing CVD, ALD applications including high κ metal-oxides, barrier layers, metal interconnects, and capping layers, among others.
• Provides focused information for supply-chain managers, process integration and R&D directors, as well as business development and financial analysts
• Covers information about key suppliers, issues/trends in the material supply chain, estimates on supplier market share, and forecast for the material segments

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Description

Click here for a PDF download of the full table of contents

1  Executive Summary  21
 1.1 Precursors Market Forecasts & 5-Year CAGRs	                     21
 1.2 Technical Drivers / Material Changes and Transitions	     24
 1.3 Leading Edge Logic	                                             24
 1.4 EQUIPMENT Market Trends	                                     24
 1.5 Analyst Assessment	                                             28
 1.6 Opportunities for Suppliers	                             31
2  Scope, Purpose, and Methodology  32
 2.1 Scope	                                                     32
 2.2 Purpose	                                                     32
 2.3 Methodology	                                             32
 2.4 Overview of Other TECHCET CMR™ Reports	                     33
3  Market outlook  34
 3.1 Semiconductor Industry Market Status & Outlook	             34
 3.2 Global Economy	                                             34
 3.2.1 Semiconductor Industries Ties to the Global Economy	     35
 3.2.2 Semiconductor Sales Growth	                             36
 3.2.3 Taiwan Monthly Sales Trends	                             37
 3.2.4 Semiconductor Industry Outlook	                             37
 3.2.5 Semiconductor Units and Wafer Shipment Growth Forecast	     38
 3.3 Electronic Goods Market	                                     39
 3.3.1 Smartphones	                                             39
 3.3.2 PC Unit Shipments	                                     40
 3.4 Automotive Sales	                                             41
 3.4.1 Automotive Sales and Impact on Semiconductor Sales	     41
 3.4.2 Electric Vehicle (EV) Market Trends	                     42
 3.4.3 Increase in Semiconductor Content for Autos	             43
 3.4.4 Semiconductor Content by Automotive Electronic System	     44
 3.4.5 Servers / IT	                                             44
 3.5 Semiconductor Fabrication Growth & Expansion  	             45
 3.5.1 Equipment Spending Trends	                             45
 3.5.2 Overall China Market Trends	                             48
 3.5.3 Policy & Trade Trends and Impact	                             50
 3.5.4 Policy and Trade Issues	                                     50
 3.5.5 U.S. CHIPS Act	                                             51
 3.5.6 Other Semiconductor Funding Activity	                     52
 3.6 Semiconductor Materials Outlook	                             52
 3.6.1 Wafer Start Growth	                                     53
 3.6.2 Materials Forecast	                                     54
4  Semiconductor PRECURSORS MARKET TRENDS  56
 4.1 CVD & ALD Metal and High-κ precursors	                     57
 4.2 Sub-Tier Material Trends	                                     58
 4.3 Technical Drivers / Material Changes and Transitions	     60
 4.4 Leading-Edge Logic                                  	     60
 4.5 DRAM	                                                     65
 4.6 3DNAND	                                                     67
 4.7 Emerging Memory Devices	                                     69
 4.8 China Status in Memory and Logic	                             70
 4.9 Trends/impact/status of legacy materials	                     71  
 4.9.1 Comment on Regional Trends/Drivers	                     73
 4.10 EHS and Logistic Issues	                                     74
 4.10.1	Tungsten	                                             74
 4.10.2	Titanium	                                             75
 4.10.3	Zirconium and Hafnium	                                     75
 4.10.4	Cobalt	                                                     76
 4.10.5	Ruthenium	                                             77
 4.10.6	Logic Production Energy demand and Green House Gas emissions 77
 4.10.7	Changes in standard packaging/valve types	             79
 4.11 CVD / ALD Equipment	                                     80
 4.12 Literature review and IP filing for 
      new metallization – Mo and Ru	                             86
5  Precursors Market Forecast & Market Shares  92
 5.1 Fab Material Supply/Demand - Metal Precursors	             92
 5.1.1 Metal Precursors - Market Forecast	                     93
 5.1.2 Metal Precursors - Market Shares	                             93
 5.1.3 Metal Precursors - Regional Shares	                     94
 5.2 M&A Activity	                                             96
 5.2.1 Summary of recent M&A´s	                                     96
 5.2.2 Impact of M&A on market leaders	                             97
 5.2.3 Linde-Praxair	                                             97
 5.2.4 Versum Materials takeover deal by Merck KGaA	             98
 5.2.5 2021 - Ascensus acquires a global leader in high-purity
       specialty chemicals and CVD/ALD precursors
       Strem Chemicals, Inc.Passt M&A	                             99
 5.2.6 Mitsubishi Chemical America Inc. takeover of Gelest Inc.	     99
 5.2.7 2018/2019 - MPD Chemicals acquires Norquay Technology
       and then gets acquired by Entegris in addition
       to previously buying DSC.	                             100
 5.2.8 OEM M&A activity in the CVD and ALD Segment	             100
 5.2.8.1 Applied Materials Kokusai takeover	                     100
 5.3 Regional Market Dynamics - New Plants or Entrants	             101
 5.3.1 South Korea	                                             101
 5.3.2 Taiwan	                                                     101
 5.3.3 USA	                                                     102
 5.4 EU and The UK	                                             102
 5.5 Plant Closures and Product Discontinuations	             102
 5.6 New Entrants- no new entrants	                             102
 5.7 Suppliers or parts/product line that is at risk of 
     discontinuations – none to report at this time	             102
 5.8 Pricing Trends	                                             102
6  Sub tier material supply chain  104 
 6.1 Raw Material Sources	                                     104
 6.2 Raw Supply Chain Disruptions	                             104
 6.2.1 COVID-19	                                                     106
 6.3 M&A Activity	                                             107
 6.4 Raw Material EHS and Logistics Issues	                     107
 6.5 New entrants	                                             107
7  Sub-tier material Supply-chain Status & Challenges  108 
 7.1 Tungsten	                                                     108
 7.2 Cobalt	                                                     110
 7.3 Tantalum and Niobium	                                     114
 7.4 Zirconium and Hafnium	                                     116
 7.5 Rare-Earth                                                      119
 7.6 Ruthenium & PGM	                                             120
 7.7 Titanium	                                                     123
 7.8 Aluminum	                                                     124
8  Supplier profiles  125
8.1.  ADEKA Corporation 125
 8.1.1 ADEKA CORPORATION - Company Overview	                     125
 8.1.2 ADEKA CORPORATION -Business Segments	                     126
 8.1.3 ADEKA CORPORATION - News	                                     127
 8.1.4 ADEKA CORPORATION - Regions Served	                     129
 8.1.5 ADEKA CORPORATION - Key Customers	                     129
 8.1.6 ADEKA CORPORATION - Financial Overview	                     129
 8.1.7 ADEKA CORPORATION - Manufacturing Locations, 
       Capabilities, and Certifications	                             130
 8.1.8 Sales Reps and Distributors	                             131
 8.1.9 TECHCET Analyst Assessment	                             132
8.2.  Air Liquide (Maker, Purifier, Supplier)  132
 8.2.1 Air Liquide - Company Overview	                             132
 8.2.2 Air Liquide - Business Segments	                             133
 8.2.3 Air Liquide - News	                                     133
 8.2.4 Air Liquide – Financial Overview	                             133
 8.2.5 Air Liquide - Manufacturing Locations, 
       Capabilities, and Certifications	                             134
 8.2.6 JVs and Partnerships	                                     135
 8.2.7 Sales Reps	                                             135
 8.2.8 TECHCET Analyst Assessment	                             135
8.3.  AZmax Co., Ltd  136
 8.3.1 AZmax Co., Ltd. - Company Overview	                     136
 8.3.2 AZmax Co., Ltd.-Business Segments	                     136
 8.3.3 Azmax Co., Ltd. – Regions Served	                             137
 8.3.4 Azmax Co., Ltd.- Fiscal Year Financial Overview	             137
 8.3.5 AZmax Co., Ltd.- Manufacturing Locations, 
       Capabilities, and Certifications	                             137
 8.3.6 JVs and Partnerships	                                     137
 8.3.7 Sales Reps and Distributors	                             137
 8.3.8 TECHCET Analyst Assessment	                             137
8.4 DNF Co., Ltd    138
 8.4.1 DNF Co., Ltd - Company Overview	                             138
 8.4.2 DNF Co., Ltd -Business Segments – all electronics materials   138
 8.4.3 DNF Co., Ltd -News	                                     139
 8.4.4 DNF Co., Ltd -Regions Served	                             139
 8.4.5 DNF Co., Ltd -Key Customers	                             139
 8.4.6 Fiscal Year Financial Overview	                             139
 8.4.7 DNF Co., Ltd -JVs and Partnerships	                     141
 8.4.8 DNF Co., Ltd -Sales Reps and Distributors	             141
 8.4.9 DNF Co., Ltd -TECHCET Analyst Assessment	                     141
8.5 Entegris	142
 8.5.1 Entegris - Company Overview	                             142
 8.5.2 ENTEGRIS - Business Segments	                             142
 8.5.3 ENTEGRIS- News	                                             144
 8.5.4 ENTEGRIS - Regions Served	                             144
 8.5.5 ENTEGRIS- Key Customers	                                     144
 8.5.6 ENTEGRIS- Fiscal Year Financial Overview	                     144
 8.5.7 ENTEGRIS- Manufacturing Locations, 
       Capabilities, and Certifications	                             145
 8.5.8 JVs and Partnerships	                                     146
 8.5.9 Sales Reps and Distributors	                             146
 8.5.10	TECHCET Analyst Assessment	                             146
8.6 Epivalence	147
 8.6.1 EpiValence Ltd. - Company Overview	                     147
 8.6.2 EpiValence Ltd.-Business Segments	                     148
 8.6.3 EpiValence Ltd.- News	                                     149
 8.6.4 EpiValence Ltd.- Regions Served	                             149
 8.6.5 EpiValence Ltd.- Key Customers	                             149
 8.6.6 EpiValence Ltd - Fiscal Year Financial Overview	             149
 8.6.7 EpiValence Ltd - Manufacturing Locations,
       Capabilities, and Certifications	                             150
 8.6.8 JVs and Partnerships	                                     150
 8.6.9 Sales Reps and Distributors	                             150
 8.6.10	TECHCET Analyst Assessment	                             150
8.7 Gelest – Mitsubishi Chemicals	150
 8.7.1 Gelest Inc. -  Company Overview	                             150
 8.7.2 Gelest Inc – Business Segments.	                             151
 8.7.3 Gelest Inc. – News	                                     152
 8.7.4 Gelest Inc.- Regions Served	                             153
 8.7.5 Gelest Inc. - Fiscal Year Financial Overview	             153
 8.7.6 Gelest Inc. - Manufacturing Locations,
       Capabilities, and Certifications                              153
 8.7.7 JVs and Partnerships	                                     154
 8.7.8 Sales Reps and Distributors	                             154
 8.7.9 TECHCET Analyst Assessment	                             155
8.8	Hansol Chemical	155
 8.8.1 Hansol Chemical - Company Overview	                     155
 8.8.2 Hansol Chemical - Business Segments	                     156
 8.8.3 Hansol ALD/CVD Products                                       156
 8.8.4 Hansol Chemical - News	                                     156
 8.8.5 Hansol Chemical - Regions Served	                             157
 8.8.6 Hansol Chemical - Key Customers	                             157
 8.8.7 Hansol Chemical - Fiscal Year Financial Overview     	     158
 8.8.8 Hansol Chemical - Manufacturing Locations,
       Capabilities, and Certifications	                             158
 8.8.9 Hansol Chemical - JVs and Partnerships	                     159
 8.8.10	Hansol Chemical- Sales Reps and Distributors	             159
 8.8.11	TECHCET Analyst Assessment	                             160
8.9 H.C. Starck (sub-tier supplier)	160
 8.9.1 HC Stark-Company Overview	                             160
 8.9.2 HC Stark -Business Segments	                             161
 8.9.3 HC Stark -Recent News	                                     163
 8.9.4 HC Stark -Regions Served	                                     164
 8.9.5 HC Stark -Financial Overview	                             164
 8.9.6 HC Stark -Manufacturing Locations,
       Capabilities, and Certifications	                             164
 8.9.7 JVs and Partnerships	                                     165
 8.9.8 Sales Reps	                                             166
 8.9.9 TECHCET Analyst Assessment	                             167
8.10 Kojundo Chemical Laboratory	167
 8.10.1	Kojundo - Company Overview	                             167
 8.10.2	Kojundo -Business Segments	                             168
 8.10.3	Kojundo - News	                                             170
 8.10.4	Kojundo– Regions Served	                                     171
 8.10.5	Kojundo - Key Customers                                      171
 8.10.6	Kojundo - Manufacturing Locations, 
        Capabilities, and Certifications	                     171
 8.10.7	TECHCET Analyst Assessment	                             172
8.11 Linde (Maker, Purifier, Supplier)	172
 8.11.1	Linde- Company Overview	                                     172
 8.11.2	Linde-Business Segments	                                     174
 8.11.3	Linde- News	                                             176
 8.11.4	Linde - Key Customers	                                     177
 8.11.5	Linde -  Regions Served	                                     177
 8.11.6	Linde- Fiscal Year Financial Overview	                     177
 8.11.7	Linde- Manufacturing Locations, 
        Capabilities, and Certifications	                     177
 8.11.8	JVs and Partnerships	                                     178
 8.11.9	Sales Reps and Distributors - Linde	                     179
 8.11.10 TECHCET Analyst Assessment	                             179
8.12 Mecaro	180
 8.12.1	Mecaro- Company Overview	                             180
 8.12.2	Business Segments	                                     180
 8.12.3	News	                                                     181
 8.12.4	Regions Served	                                             181
 8.12.5	Key Customers	                                             181
 8.12.6	Fiscal Year Financial Overview (KRW)                         182
 8.12.7	Manufacturing Locations, Capabilities,
        and Certifications	                                     182
 8.12.8	JVs and Partnerships	                                     184
 8.12.9	Sales Reps and Distributors	                             185
 8.12.10 TECHCET Analyst Assessment	                             185
8.13 EMD Electronics/Merck EMD (for old profile Versum products see Sec.26)	186
 8.13.1	Merck KGaA / EMD- Company Overview	                     186
 8.13.2	Merck KGaA / EMD - Business Segments	                     186
 8.13.3	Merck KGaA / EMD – Financial Overview	                     187
 8.13.4	Merck KGaA / EMD - News	                                     188
 8.13.5	Merck KGaA / EMD - Key Customers	                     188
 8.13.6	Merck KGaA / EMD - Manufacturing Locations, 
        Capabilities, and Certifications	                     189
 8.13.7	JVs and Partnerships	                                     191
 8.13.8	Sales Reps and Distributors	                             191
 8.13.9	TECHCET Analyst Assessment	                             193
8.14 Nanmat	194
 8.14.1	Nanmat -Company Overview	                             194
 8.14.2	Nanmat -Business Segments	                             194
 8.14.3	Nanmat - News	                                             195
 8.14.4	Nanmat -Regions Served	                                     196
 8.14.5	Nanmat -Key Customers	                                     196
 8.14.6	Nanmat -Financial Overview	                             196
 8.14.7	Nanmat -Manufacturing Locations, Capabilities, 
        and Certifications	                                     196
 8.14.8	Nanmat -JVs and Partnerships	                             197
 8.14.9	Nanmat -Sales Reps	                                     197
 8.14.10 Nanmat - TECHCET Analyst Assessment	                     197
8.15 Norquay (old profile, integrated in MPD and aquired by Entegris)	198
 8.15.1	Norquay - Company Overview	                             198
 8.15.2	Norquay - Business Segments	                             198
 8.15.3	Norquay - News	                                             200
 8.15.4	Norquay - Manufacturing Locations, Capabilities,
        and Certifications	                                     201
 8.15.5	Norquay - JVs and Partnerships	                             201
 8.15.6	Norquay - Sales Reps                             	     201
 8.15.7	Norquay - TECHCET Analyst Assessment	                     202
8.16 Pegasus Chemicals	202
 8.16.1	Pegasus Chemicals - Company Overview	                     202
 8.16.2	Pegasus Chemicals - Business Segments	                     202
 8.16.3	Pegasus Chemicals - News	                             207
 8.16.4	Pegasus Chemicals - Regions Served	                     208
 8.16.5	Pegasus Chemicals - Financial Overview	                     208
 8.16.6	Pegasus Chemicals - Manufacturing Locations,
        Capabilities, and Certifications	                     208
 8.16.7	Pegasus Chemicals - JVs and Partnerships	             208
 8.16.8	Pegasus Chemicals - Sales Reps	                             209
 8.16.9	Pegasus Chemicals -  TECHCET Analyst Assessment	             209
8.17 Soulbrain	209
 8.17.1	Soulbrain- Company Overview	                             209
 8.17.2	Soulbrain -Business Segments	                             210
 8.17.3	Soulbrain -News	                                             211
 8.17.4	Soulbrain -Regions Served	                             212
 8.17.5	Soulbrain -Key Customers	                             212
 8.17.6	Fiscal Year Financial Overview	                             212
 8.17.7	Soulbrain -Manufacturing Locations, Capabilities, 
        and Certifications	                                     212
 8.17.8	Soulbrain -JVs and Partnerships	                             213
 8.17.9	Soulbrain - Sales Reps and Distributors	                     214
 8.17.10 Soulbrain -TECHCET Analyst Assessment	                     214 
8.18 Strem	215
 8.18.1	Strem - Company Overview	                             215
 8.18.2	Strem - Products	                                     215
 8.18.3	Strem - News	                                             216
 8.18.4	Strem -Regions Served	                                     217
 8.18.5	Strem -Key Customers	                                     217
 8.18.6	Strem - Financial Overview	                             217
 8.18.7	Strem - Manufacturing Locations, Capabilities,
        and Certifications	                                     217
 8.18.8	Strem -JVs and Partnerships	                             218
 8.18.9	Strem -Sales Reps	                                     218
 8.18.10 Strem -TECHCET Analyst Assessment	                     218
8.19 Tanaka Kikinzoku Group	219
 8.19.1	Tanaka Kikinzoku Group - Company Overview	             219
 8.19.2	Tanaka Kikinzoku Group -Business Segments	             219
 8.19.3	Tanaka Kikinzoku Group - News	                             220
 8.19.4	Tanaka Kikinzoku Group - Regions Served	                     221
 8.19.5	Tanaka Kikinzoku Group - Key Customers	                     221
 8.19.6	Tanaka Holdings - Fiscal Year Financial Overview	     221
 8.19.7	Tanaka Kikinzoku Group - Manufacturing Locations, 
        Capabilities, and Certifications	                     222
 8.19.8	Tanaka Kikinzoku Group - JVs and Partnerships	             223
 8.19.9	Tanaka Kikinzoku Group - Sales Reps and Distributors	     223
 8.19.10 Tanaka Kikinzoku Group - TECHCET Analyst Assessment	     224
8.20 Tokyo Chemical Industry Co., Ltd.	224
 8.20.1	TCI - Company Overview	                                     224
 8.20.2	TCI-Business Segments	                                     225
 8.20.3	TCI- News	                                             225
 8.20.4	TCI - Regions Served	                                     226
 8.20.5	TCI- Fiscal Year Financial Overview	                     226
 8.20.6	TCI- Manufacturing Locations, Capabilities, 
        and Certifications	                                     226
 8.20.7	TCI-JVs and Partnerships	                             226
 8.20.8	TCI-Sales Reps and Distributors	                             227
 8.20.9	TCI-TECHCET Analyst Assessment	                             227
8.21 Tri Chemical Laboratories	227
 8.21.1	Tri Chemical Laboratories Inc.- Company Overview	     227
 8.21.2	Tri Chemical Laboratories Inc.-Business Segments	     227
 8.21.3	Tri Chemical Laboratories Inc.- News	                     229 
 8.21.4	Tri Chemical Laboratories Inc. - Regions Served	             229
 8.21.5	Tri Chemical Laboratories Inc.- Key Customers	             229
 8.21.6	Tri Chemical Laboratories Inc.- Financial Overview	     229
 8.21.7	Tri Chemical Laboratories Inc.- Manufacturing Locations,
        Capabilities, and Certifications	                     229
 8.21.8	Tri Chemical Laboratories Inc.- JVs and Partnerships	     230
 8.21.9	Tri Chemical Laboratories Inc.- Sales Reps and Distributors  230
 8.21.10 Tri Chemical Laboratories Inc.- TECHCET Analyst Assessment  230
8.22 Umicore	231
 8.22.1	Umicore - Company Overview	                             231
 8.22.2	Umicore - Business Segments	                             231
 8.22.3	Umicore  - News	                                             232
 8.22.4	Umicore - Regions Served	                             233
 8.22.5	Umicore - Key Customers	                                     233
 8.22.6	Umicore - Financial Overview	                             234
 8.22.7	Umicore  - JVs and Partnerships	                             236
 8.22.8	Umicore  - Sales Reps	                                     236
 8.22.9	Umicore  - TECHCET Analyst Assessment	                     236
8.23 UP Chemical/ Yoke (China HQ)	237
 8.23.1	UP Chemical- Company Overview	                             237
 8.23.2	UP Chemical- Business Segments	                             237
 8.23.3	UP Chemical- News	                                     238
 8.23.4	UP Chemical - Key Customers	                             238
 8.23.5	UP Chemical- Regions Served	                             238
 8.23.6	UP Chemical- Manufacturing Locations, 
        Capabilities, and Certifications	                     238
 8.23.7	UP Chemical- JVs and Partnerships	                     239
 8.23.8	UP Chemical- Client/Partners	                             240
 8.23.9	UP Chemical- Sales Reps and Distributors	             240
 8.23.10 UP Chemical- TECHCET Analyst Assessment	             241
8.24 VERSUM (Maker, Purifier, Supplier) - OLD Profile, now MERCK	241
 8.24.1	Versum - Company Overview	                             241
 8.24.2	VERSUM - Business Segments	                             242
 8.24.3	VERSUM- Financial Overview	                             242
 8.24.4	VERSUM -  News	                                             243
 8.24.5	VERSUM- Manufacturing Locations, Capabilities,
        and Certifications	                                     244
 8.24.6	VERSUM- JVs and Partnerships	                             244
 8.24.7	VERSUM- Sales Reps and Distributors	                     244
 8.24.8	VERSUM- TECHCET Analyst Assessment	                     245
8.25 Wonik Materials Co. Ltd.	246
 8.25.1	Wonik Materials - Company Overview	                     246
 8.25.2	Wonik Materials - Business Segments	                     246
 8.25.3	Wonik Materials - News	                                     249
 8.25.4	Wonik Materials - Regions Served	                     250
 8.25.5	Wonik Materials - Key Customers	                             250
 8.25.6	Wonik Materials - Financial Overview	                     250
 8.25.7	Wonik Materials - Manufacturing Locations, 
        Capabilities, and Certifications	                     251
 8.25.8	Wonik Materials - JVs and Partnerships      	             253
 8.25.9	Wonik Materials - Sales Reps and Distributors	             253
 8.25.10 Wonik Materials - TECHCET Analyst Assessment	             253
8.26 Zillion Tek Co., Ltd	254
 8.26.1	Zillion Tek - Company Overview	                             254
 8.26.2	Zillion Tek -Business Segments	                             254
 8.26.3	Zillion Tek - News	                                     256
 8.26.4	Zillion Tek - Regions Served	                             257
 8.26.5	Zillion Tek - Key Customers	                             257
 8.26.6	Zillion Tek - Financial Overview	                     257
 8.26.7	Zillion Tek - Manufacturing Locations, Capabilities,
        and Certifications	                                     257
 8.26.8	Zillion Tek - Sales Reps and Distributors	             258
 8.26.9	Zillion Tek - TECHCET Analyst Assessment	             258
9  APENDIX 1- FUNDAMENTALS OF THIN FILM DEPOSITION BY CVD, ALD, AND SOD, AND ASD AND ALE	259
 9.1 Chemical Vapor Deposition - CVD	                             260
 9.2 Atomic Layer Deposition – ALD	                             262
 9.3 Spin-on Dielectrics (SOD)	                                     264
 9.4 Atomic Layer Etching (ALE)	                                     264
 9.5 Area Selective Deposition (ASD)	                             266
10 APPENDIX 2 LOGIC AND MEMORY TECHNOLOGIES AND ROADMAPS	268
 10.1.1	Multi-patterning & EUV Lithography	                     268
 10.1.2	Interconnect Trends	                                     278
 10.1.2.1 Copper Interconnect	                                     279
 10.1.2.2 Cobalt interconnects, liners, and caps	             280
 10.1.2.3 Ruthenium Interconnects	                             285
 10.1.2.4 High-aspect-ratio ruthenium power rails	             286
 10.1.2.5 Manganese Barrier Metal                                    289
 10.1.3	Logic Transistor Evolution	                             289
 10.1.3.1 5 nm and beyond	                                     295
 10.1.3.2 Extending FinFET to Horizontal Nanowires GAA FETs	     296
 10.1.3.3 Realizing vertical Logic - Going vertical (2.5/3D)	     301
 10.1.4	Memory Evolution & Future Trends	                     304
 10.1.4.1 DRAM	                                                     305
 10.1.4.2 2D to 3DNAND transition	                             311
 10.1.4.3 Alternative NVM Technologies	                             314
 10.1.4.3.1 3D XPoint  	                                             314
 10.1.4.3.2 Ferroelectric FRAM and FeFET	                     315
 10.1.4.3.3 Emerging Negative Capacitance Devices:	             317
11 APPENDIX 3 - ACRONYMS	320

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